If you find yourself repeating lots of information about the experimental design when describing the data collection procedure slikely you can combine them and be more concise.
Print a double space copy with font size 14 and re-read your paper in several steps. How will answering this question move the field forward? This means that you should be selective in presenting data and choose only those experimental details that are essential for your reader to understand your findings.
Authors usually write the text of the results section based upon the sequence of Tables and Figures. Another revision strategy is to learn your common errors and to do a targeted search for them [ 13 ].
Obviously, you must refer to your results when discussing them, but focus on the interpretation of those results and their significance in relation to the research problem, not the data itself.
Indicate a gap in the previous research, or extend previous knowledge in some way. Foremost in your description should be the "quantitative" aspects of your study - the masses, volumes, incubation times, concentrations, etc.
For example, how representative was your model? For example, did the approaches differ or were there major differences in sample sizes that may have affected results? Readers of scientific papers in medical journals are used to the IMRaD structure Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion 1 and either consciously or unconsciously know the function of each section.
An inoculating loop was used to transfer culture to the agar surface. What was the most important result of your study? Since you have all your notes, it should not be problematic for you to describe the experimental design and procedures. After institutional review board approval and with written informed consent, a controlled, double-blinded study was conducted with male and female patients, ASA status I to III, randomly assigned into 2 groups with the aid of a computer-generated table of random numbers.
You do not need and are not recommended to follow the order of the paper to perform this type of revision. Many universities have a writing center where graduate students can schedule individual consultations and receive assistance with their paper drafts. For example, did you use mouse pups or adults?
While describing your Methods and Results, many of you diverged from the original outline and re-focused your ideas. The Science of Writing: Indeed, this is the part of the paper where authors often run amok. Moreover, the evaluation of the alternative explanations might help you create a logical step to the next move of the discussion section: Avoid repetitive paragraph structures.
Department of English Writing Guide. Why is your research important? The conclusion should not repeat information from the discussion section but restate the main conclusions in a new concise way for your readers, so that they are in no doubt what you have achieved while doing the research presented in your paper.
Very frequently the experimental design and data collection procedures for an experiment cannot be separated and must be integrated together.
The information should include: American Psychological Association; Our on-site scientific writing workshops can range from hours to several days in length. Most studies yield new discoveries that prompt additional studies. This is an important part of the paragraph and may require multiple paragraphs depending on the number of key studies that exist on your topic.
What was the overarching hypothesis? Our proposal for a structured discussion is shown in the box. Revise your paper at the macrostructure and the microstructure level using different strategies and techniques. When using standard lab or field methods and instrumentation, it is not always necessary to explain the procedures e.
This includes giving the 1 source supplier or where and how the orgranisms were collected2 typical size weight, length, etc3 how they were handled, fed, and housed before the experiment, 4 how they were handled, fed, and housed during the experiment. How do your results fit into a broader context?
What materials did you use? Open in a separate window Adapted from Swales and Feak [ 11 ]. The A of the no-light control was measured only at Time 0 and at the end of the experiment.
Be simple and clear Present summaries of large data sets means with standard error or deviation Detailed data should be reported in tables or figures and not as lists in the text Only give the data which is relevant to the paper Refer to every table or figure in the text Each figure or table should be identified by a unique number e.
Interpretation is a subjective exercise.Most journal-style scientific papers are subdivided into the following sections: Title, Authors and Affiliation, Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments, and Literature Cited, which parallel the experimental process.
This is the system we will use. The Difficulties of Writing a Discussion Section. In an ideal world, you could simply reject your null or alternative hypotheses according to the significance levels found by the statistics. That is the main point of your discussion section, but the process is usually a lot more complex than that.
In this paper, I will discuss the issues related to the writing process of a scientific paper. Specifically, I will focus on the best approaches to start a scientific paper, tips for writing each section, and the best revision strategies. This section describes an organizational structure commonly used to report experimental research in many scientific disciplines, the IMRAD format: Introduction, Methods, Results, And Discussion.
Although the main headings are standard for many scientific fields, details may vary; check with your instructor, or, if submitting an article to a journal, refer to the instructions to authors. How to Write a Strong Discussion in Scientific Manuscripts. Release Date: May 3, Category: Manuscript Writing Author: Rita N., Ph.D.
A strong Discussion section provides a great deal of analytical depth. Your goal should be to critically analyze and interpret the findings of your study. 1! Scientific papers: Writing the discussion section UW-Madison BACTER Institute (kaleiseminari.com), Apr. Main purpose of the discussion.Download